Products and By-Products
Sugarcane milling process produces
many sugar products and by products. The two basic types of
sugar produced in the different sugar districts in the Philippines
are the raw and refined. The raw brown sugar can be processed
further to produce refine sugar or packed raw for local and export
markets. Other sugar products such as "pilon", "panocha"
and "muscovado" are produced through the crude milling
process while beet pulp is an output of the refining process.
Sugar and its by products have
many uses. Sugar and sugar products like "pilon",
"panocha", and "muscovado" are commonly
used as sweetener in food products like candies, sweets, cakes,
pastries, bread, soft drinks and other beverages.
Bagasse is the fibrous material
left after the sugarcane is crushed and its juice is extracted.
It contains, on dry basis, approximately 49% cellulose, 26% pentosan
and 19% lignin (del Rosario et al., 1977; Ocampo et al., 1976).
The hexans and cellulose contained in sugarcane bagasse may
be hydrolyzed into hexoses which can be fermented by yeast into
ethanol. The sugar of bagasse hydrolysate consisted of 29% glucose
and 61% pentoses. Results of study indicated that the low alcohol
concentration obtained in the hydrolysate of sugarcane bagasse
combined with its unfavorable sugar into alcohol conversion efficiency
does not make sugarcane bagasse an attractive material for alcohol
production but appears quite suitable for the production of feed
yeast (del Rosario, E. J et al., 1981).
At present, bagasse is used
as fuel for the boilers of sugar mill to generate power and electricity
for the plant. In Camarines Sur sugar mill district, of the
11,098.69 MT bagasse produced per milling season, only about
50% or 5,549.34 MT is utilized as fuel. The other 50%, which
at the moment remains untapped can be used in the production
of particleboard, organic fertilizer and a promising raw material
for the manufacture of pulp and paper. As feed, it is a very
good source of dietary fiber for livestock.
Another major by product of
both cane and beet manufacture is molasses. It is a dark brown
sticky syrup formed during the centrifugation/drying process
of cane extracts. It is used by local distiller as feedstock
for making potable alcohol and yeast and by local feed millers
as component for animal feeds. Other products such as distillery
slops, MSG, citric acid, lysine and dextrose/sorbitol can also
be derived from it.
Beet pulp is used extensively
as livestock feed. The waste water pressed from beet pulp after
the refining process yield monosodium glutamate (MSG), a chemical
that is used in food seasoning.
Filter cake or mud press is
a chocolate, sticky waste during juice extraction of cane stalks
containing 5-15 % protein, calcium and phosphorus; 5-15 % sugar;
10-30% fiber; 10-20% ash and other micronutrients. It is a by-product
with high potential as important component of organic fertilizer
and animal feed and as source of sugarcane wax and methane (gas
for fuel) when process.